This is part #1 of the poetry we will be looking at for Tuesday: note how it is strongly influenced in its style and content by the ideal of American democracy. We will consider how the poetry claims for itself the "primitive" voice in reasserting an authentic American tradition of American poetry.
The Man with a Hoe (1899)by Edwin Markham
This was one of the most popular poems ever published in the United States in terms of reproductions. Based on a well known painting, the poem seems to return dignity to labor and the underclass. Do you read it in a naturalist light or no?
Bowed by the weight of centuries he leans
Upon his hoe and gazes on the ground,
The emptiness of ages in his face,
And on his back, the burden of the world.
Who made him dead to rapture and despair,
A thing that grieves not and that never hopes,
Stolid and stunned, a brother to the ox?
Who loosened and let down this brutal jaw?
Whose was the hand that slanted back this brow?
Whose breath blew out the light within this brain?
Is this the Thing the Lord God made and gave
To have dominion over sea and land;
To trace the stars and search the heavens for power;
To feel the passion of Eternity?
Is this the dream He dreamed who shaped the suns
And marked their ways upon the ancient deep?
Down all the caverns of Hell to their last gulf
There is no shape more terrible than this--
More tongued with cries against the world's blind greed--
More filled with signs and portents for the soul--
More packed with danger to the universe.
What gulfs between him and the seraphim!
Slave of the wheel of labor, what to him
Are Plato and the swing of the Pleiades?
What the long reaches of the peaks of song,
The rift of dawn, the reddening of the rose?
Through this dread shape the suffering ages look;
Time's tragedy is in that aching stoop;
Through this dread shape humanity betrayed,
Plundered, profaned and disinherited,
Cries protest to the Powers that made the world,
A protest that is also prophecy.
O masters, lords and rulers in all lands,
Is this the handiwork you give to God,
This monstrous thing distorted and soul-quenched?
How will you ever straighten up this shape;
Touch it again with immortality;
Give back the upward looking and the light;
Rebuild in it the music and the dream;
Make right the immemorial infamies,
Perfidious wrongs, immedicable woes?
O masters, lords and rulers in all lands,
How will the future reckon with this Man?
How answer his brute question in that hour
When whirlwinds of rebellion shake all shores?
How will it be with kingdoms and with kings--
With those who shaped him to the thing he is--
When this dumb Terror shall rise to judge the world,
After the silence of the centuries?
Edgar Lee Masters (1868–1950). Spoon River Anthology. 1916.
The following is a sample of poems from one of the most popular and influential books of poetry published in the early 20th Century. The Spoon River Anthology is essentially 215 short poems from 215 characters--all of whom lived, or at least were born in the Illinois town of Spoon River. The characters now dead sum up their lives. Consider the sheer variety of characters represented, the epitaphic style of the poems, and how poetry captures the pathos of life in a midwestern town.
3. Ollie McGee
|HAVE you seen walking through the village|
|A man with downcast eyes and haggard face?|
|That is my husband who, by secret cruelty|
|Never to be told, robbed me of my youth and my beauty;|
|Till at last, wrinkled and with yellow teeth,||5|
|And with broken pride and shameful humility,|
|I sank into the grave.|
|But what think you gnaws at my husband’s heart?|
|The face of what I was, the face of what he made me!|
|These are driving him to the place where I lie.||10|
|In death, therefore, I am avenged.|
4. Fletcher McGee
|SHE took my strength by minutes,|
|She took my life by hours,|
|She drained me like a fevered moon|
|That saps the spinning world.|
|The days went by like shadows,||5|
|The minutes wheeled like stars.|
|She took the pity from my heart,|
|And made it into smiles.|
|She was a hunk of sculptor’s clay,|
|My secret thoughts were fingers:||10|
|They flew behind her pensive brow|
|And lined it deep with pain.|
|They set the lips, and sagged the cheeks,|
|And drooped the eyes with sorrow.|
|My soul had entered in the clay,||15|
|Fighting like seven devils.|
|It was not mine, it was not hers;|
|She held it, but its struggles|
|Modeled a face she hated,|
|And a face I feared to see.||20|
|I beat the windows, shook the bolts.|
|I hid me in a corner—|
|And then she died and haunted me,|
|And hunted me for life.|
34. Percy Bysshe Shelley
|MY father who owned the wagon-shop|
|And grew rich shoeing horses|
|Sent me to the University of Montreal.|
|I learned nothing and returned home,|
|Roaming the fields with Bert Kessler,||5|
|Hunting quail and snipe.|
|At Thompson’s Lake the trigger of my gun|
|Caught in the side of the boat|
|And a great hole was shot through my heart.|
|Over me a fond father erected this marble shaft,||10|
|On which stands the figure of a woman|
|Carved by an Italian artist.|
|They say the ashes of my namesake|
|Were scattered near the pyramid of Caius Cestius|
|Somewhere near Rome.||15|
47. Margaret Fuller Slack
|I WOULD have been as great as George Eliot|
|But for an untoward fate.|
|For look at the photograph of me made by Penniwit,|
|Chin resting on hand, and deep-set eyes—|
|Gray, too, and far-searching.||5|
|But there was the old, old problem:|
|Should it be celibacy, matrimony or unchastity?|
|Then John Slack, the rich druggist, wooed me,|
|Luring me with the promise of leisure for my novel,|
|And I married him, giving birth to eight children,||10|
|And had no time to write.|
|It was all over with me, anyway,|
|When I ran the needle in my hand|
|While washing the baby’s things,|
|And died from lock-jaw, an ironical death.||15|
|Hear me, ambitious souls,|
|Sex is the curse of life!|
109. Elsa Wertman
|I WAS a peasant girl from Germany,|
|Blue-eyed, rosy, happy and strong.|
|And the first place I worked was at Thomas Greene’s.|
|On a summer’s day when she was away|
|He stole into the kitchen and took me||5|
|Right in his arms and kissed me on my throat,|
|I turning my head. Then neither of us|
|Seemed to know what happened.|
|And I cried for what would become of me.|
|And cried and cried as my secret began to show.||10|
|One day Mrs. Greene said she understood,|
|And would make no trouble for me,|
|And, being childless, would adopt it.|
|(He had given her a farm to be still.)|
|So she hid in the house and sent out rumors,||15|
|As if it were going to happen to her.|
|And all went well and the child was born—They were so kind to me.|
|Later I married Gus Wertman, and years passed.|
|But—at political rallies when sitters-by thought I was crying|
|At the eloquence of Hamilton Greene—||20|
|That was not it.|
|No! I wanted to say:|
|That’s my son! That’s my son!|
207. Lucinda Matlock
|I WENT to the dances at Chandlerville,|
|And played snap-out at Winchester.|
|One time we changed partners,|
|Driving home in the moonlight of middle June,|
|And then I found Davis.||5|
|We were married and lived together for seventy years,|
|Enjoying, working, raising the twelve children,|
|Eight of whom we lost|
|Ere I had reached the age of sixty.|
|I spun, I wove, I kept the house, I nursed the sick,||10|
|I made the garden, and for holiday|
|Rambled over the fields where sang the larks,|
|And by Spoon River gathering many a shell,|
|And many a flower and medicinal weed—|
|Shouting to the wooded hills, singing to the green valleys.||15|
|At ninety-six I had lived enough, that is all,|
|And passed to a sweet repose.|
|What is this I hear of sorrow and weariness,|
|Anger, discontent and drooping hopes?|
|Degenerate sons and daughters,||20|
|Life is too strong for you—|
|It takes life to love Life.|
From Vachel Lindsay's The Congo
Vachel Lindsay was a white, midwestern, popular performance poet, who chanted, howled, and shouted on stage as he recited poems. Consider how Africa and African Americans are depicted in his work, and how a primitivist poetics were constructed along racial and socioeconomic lines in America.
III. The Hope of their Religion
[Heavy bass. With a literal imitation
of camp-meeting racket, and trance.]
A good old negro in the slums of the town
Preached at a sister for her velvet gown.
Howled at a brother for his low-down ways,
His prowling, guzzling, sneak-thief days.
Beat on the Bible till he wore it out
Starting the jubilee revival shout.
And some had visions, as they stood on chairs,
And sang of Jacob, and the golden stairs,
And they all repented, a thousand strong
From their stupor and savagery and sin and wrong
And slammed with their hymn books till they shook the room
With "glory, glory, glory,"
And "Boom, boom, BOOM."
[Exactly as in the first section.
Begin with terror and power, end with joy.]
THEN I SAW THE CONGO, CREEPING THROUGH THE BLACK
CUTTING THROUGH THE JUNGLE WITH A GOLDEN TRACK.
And the gray sky opened like a new-rent veil
And showed the apostles with their coats of mail.
In bright white steele they were seated round
And their fire-eyes watched where the Congo wound.
And the twelve Apostles, from their thrones on high
Thrilled all the forest with their heavenly cry: --
[Sung to the tune of "Hark, ten thousand
harps and voices".]
"Mumbo-Jumbo will die in the jungle;
Never again will he hoo-doo you,
Never again will he hoo-doo you."
[With growing deliberation and joy.]
Then along that river, a thousand miles
The vine-snared trees fell down in files.
Pioneer angels cleared the way
For a Congo paradise, for babes at play,
For sacred capitals, for temples clean.
Gone were the skull-faced witch-men lean.
[In a rather high key -- as delicately as possible.]
There, where the wild ghost-gods had wailed
A million boats of the angels sailed
With oars of silver, and prows of blue
And silken pennants that the sun shone through.
'Twas a land transfigured, 'twas a new creation.
Oh, a singing wind swept the negro nation
And on through the backwoods clearing flew: --
[To the tune of "Hark, ten thousand harps and voices".]
"Mumbo-Jumbo is dead in the jungle.
Never again will he hoo-doo you.
Never again will he hoo-doo you."
Redeemed were the forests, the beasts and the men,
And only the vulture dared again
By the far, lone mountains of the moon
To cry, in the silence, the Congo tune: --
[Dying down into a penetrating, terrified whisper.]
"Mumbo-Jumbo will hoo-doo you,
Mumbo-Jumbo will hoo-doo you.
Mumbo . . . Jumbo . . . will . . . hoo-doo . . . you."